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Dr Paul Goodall

Our Researchers

Senior Research Associate

Loughborough University

Paul graduated with a PhD from the school of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering at Loughborough in 2015 having previously completed an MEng in Mechanical Engineering. His PhD focused upon cost estimation for remanufacturing, using techniques including case-based reasoning and Monte Carlo analysis to model uncertainties within the process. Since completing his PhD he has worked within the Embedded Integrated Intelligent Systems research group at Loughborough on a number of projects focused on application of Industry 4.0 technologies for manufacturing systems including, electrical power monitoring, modelling and simulation of manufacturing operations and condition monitoring of automotive production lines. His research interests include digital manufacturing and circular economy.

RIED Specific Links & Papers

  • Predicting electrical power consumption of end milling using a virtual machining energy toolkit (V_MET) – (September 2023)

    Understanding electrical energy consumption of machines and processes is of increasing importance to (i) minimise costs and environmental impact of production activities and (ii) provide an additional information stream to inform condition monitoring systems (i.e. digital twins) about a machine’s status and health. The research outlined in this paper develops a Virtual Machining Energy Toolkit (V_MET) to predict the electrical power consumption of a Computer Numeric Control (CNC) milling machine cutting a particular part program from preparatory codes (i.e. G code). In this way the evaluation of the energy impact of manufacturing part programs prior to implementation and real-time monitoring of the process can become a routine activity at part of a total manufacturing system optimisation. The novelty of this work lies in the inclusion of a virtual CNC process model to determine cutting geometry (i.e. width and depth of cut) to enable the prediction of relatively complex part program geometry.

    V_MET consists of three components: (i) the NC interpreter to extract key parameters (e.g. spindle speed, feed rate, tool path) from G-code instructions, (ii) a virtual CNC process model to determine instantaneous cutting geometry (i.e. width and depth of cut) and the material removal from the resulting machining by simulating the motion of the tool path to predict the interaction between the tool tip and workpiece and (iii) an energy model to predict the electrical power consumption for a given set of conditions, developed using regression analysis of data collected under real manufacturing conditions.

    Validation of V_MET has been conducted by physical machining of different product features to evaluate the validity over a range of different cutting parameters, NC operations (i.e. linear, clockwise interpolations) and repasses over previously cut regions. Overall good accuracy has been observed for the predicted energy requirements as a function of the cutting regimes, with 4.3% error in total energy and Mean Average Percentage Error (MAPE) of 5.6% when compared with measurements taken during physical cutting trials.

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  • A review of design frameworks for human-cyber-physical systems moving from industry 4 to 5 (September 2023)

    Within the Industry 4.0 landscape, humans collaborate with cyber and physical elements to form human-cyber-physical systems (HCPS). These environments are increasingly complex and challenging workspaces due to increasing levels of automation and data availability. An effective system design requires suitable frameworks that consider human activities and needs whilst supporting overall system efficacy.

    Although several reviews of frameworks for technology were identified, none of these focused on the human in the system (moving towards Industry 5). The critical literature review presented provides a summary of HCPS frameworks, maps the considerations for a human in HCPS, and provides insight for future framework and system development. The challenges, recommendations, and areas for further research are discussed.

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